Bonobos use gestures intentionally, aiming to change the behaviour of whoever they’re gesturing to. In fact, they use a greater variety of gesture types than vocal calls. We know quite a lot about how great apes use or express gestures, but we know less about how they understand them. When a bonobo uses a gesture, I can assume that that bonobo knows this gesture, and so I list that gesture in their gesture vocabulary, or “expressed repertoire”. This is where all other great ape researchers have stopped. But I’m interested in what happens with the bonobo that sees the gesture. Do only some individuals use a gesture and only some individuals receive and understand it?